The psychiatrist is a doctor. He is specialised in psychiatry. He can accompany the patients he receives in various ways: through personal follow-up, with medication, or during a stay in a specialised hospital.
The title of psychotherapist in Luxembourg is reserved for those who are initially psychologists or doctors and who have also completed specialist training in psychotherapy at a university.
And then there are the specialists in psychopathology. They are theorists rather than practitioners. Their job is to develop theories about mental illnesses. They answer the following questions : what is mental illness, what is the relationship between illness and health ? What kind of mental illnesses are there, how do we differentiate one from the other ? What are their causes and mechanisms ? The answers to these questions are not unanimous, even among specialists. And practically speaking, they imply different ways of dealing with the problems at hand.
Note : the same person may wear several hats, depending on the occasion. All psychiatrists, for example, have been trained in psychopathology, and some of them are also psychoanalysts.